The optimal duration of intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy for children with nontyphoidal Salmonella bacteremia (NTSB) is unknown. The objective of the authors of this study is to evaluate differences in outcomes among children with NTSB who received a short (≤3 days; short-duration group [SDG]) versus long (>3 days; long-duration group [LDG]) course of IV antibiotics.
This is a retrospective study of children 3 months to 18 years old with NTSB admitted to a tertiary pediatric health care system in the southeastern United States between 2008 and 2018.
Among 57 patients with NTSB without focal infection, 24 (42%) were in the SDG and received IV antibiotics for a median of 3.0 days and 33 (58%) were in the LDG and received IV antibiotics for a median of 5.0 days. Demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between the SDG and LDG. The median total duration of antibiotics was 11.5 days in the SDG and 13.0 in the LDG (P = .068). The median length of stay was 3.0 days in the SDG and 4.0 in the LDG (P ≤ .001). Two children in the SDG (8%) and 1 child in the LDG (3%) returned to the emergency department for care unrelated to the duration of their IV antibiotic therapy (P = .567). None of the children were readmitted for sequelae related to salmonellosis.
The duration of IV antibiotics varied for NTSB, but the outcomes were excellent regardless of the initial IV antibiotic duration. Earlier transitions to oral antibiotics can be considered for NTSB.