With more and more reproductive-aged women opting to pursue genetic screening during pregnancy, health care professionals must understand the variety of testing options available as well as the advantages and limitations of each testing option. Presently, no single screening test is universally believed to be superior because the combination of the specific test and the population being tested determines the range of potential identifiable conditions as well as the positive predictive values. As a result, pre- and posttest counseling are not always straightforward and may require discussions with multiple specialists including genetic counselors, obstetricians, and pediatricians/neonatologists. The purpose of this review is to summarize the screening options currently available to pregnant women to determine their risk of having a child affected by a chromosomal disorder. Screening for chromosomal abnormalities using ultrasonography, maternal serum analytes, cell-free DNA, and preimplantation genetic testing will be discussed here. Advances in the field, including the possible future use of cell-based noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) as a more accurate method for genetic screening and the incorporation of screening for copy number variants (microdeletions and duplications) into traditional cell-free NIPS will also be reviewed.

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