Objective. We investigated the prevalence and the etiology of acute otitis media (AOM) in children with bronchiolitis to determine whether AOM in such children is due entirely or mainly to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), in which case routine antimicrobial treatment would not be appropriate.
Methods. The study group consisted of children aged 2 to 24 months with bronchiolitis. In patients with AOM at entry, nasal washings for RSV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were obtained, and Gram-stained smear, bacterial culture, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of RSV were performed on middle-ear aspirates. Patients without AOM were reevaluated at 48 to 72 hours, 8 to 10 days, and 18 to 22 days.
Results. Forty-two children with bronchiolitis were enrolled. Sixty-two percent had AOM at entry or developed AOM within 10 days. An additional 24% had or eventually developed otitis media with effusion. Only 14% remained free of both AOM and otitis media with effusion throughout the 3-week observation period. All patients with AOM had 1 or more bacterial pathogens isolated from one or both middle-ear aspirates. Of 33 middle-ear aspirates, Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated in 15, Haemophilus influenzaein 8, Moraxella catarrhalis in 8, and Staphylococcus aureus in 2. Two middle-ear aspirates yielded 2 pathogens each; 2 aspirates had no growth. RSV was identified in 17 (71%) of 24 patients with AOM.
Conclusion. Bacterial AOM is a complication in most children with bronchiolitis. Accordingly, in patients with bronchiolitis and associated AOM, antimicrobial treatment is indicated.