Few of you can recall the state of pediatrics in 1938, when I was an intern. As a pediatric intern, I was involved in the usual contagious diseases in all kinds of diarrheas, in typhoid, tuberculosis, eating problems, meningitis, for none of which we had any adequate training other than ineffective support. Bacterial meningitis in my internship consisted of a needle in the cistern, another needle in the lumbar space and the flushing of saline from top to bottom. This was a very unsuccessful method of treatment.

Hemorrhagic diseases of the newborn, of course, easily prevented by drawing bloods, usually from the father who was Rhesus (Rh)-positive, and injecting it intramuscularly into Rh-negative little girls, set a good stage for what we subsequently knew about Rh incompatibility. The fluids, of course, were not given intravenously. The ward was filled with infants who are lying there with outstretched arms because of...

You do not currently have access to this content.