Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted viral infection in the United States, with a prevalence of 13% to 46% in young women.1–3  The incidence of anogenital HPV is also rising in prepubertal children, who may acquire the infection at birth or through sexual abuse. HPV has been recognized as a key factor in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer in women. The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is an effective screening tool for cervical cancer and its precursors, and the Bethesda system, which was developed by consensus of the National Cancer Institute, is currently used for classification of Pap smears. Under the Bethesda system, epithelial cell abnormalities include atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LG SIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HG SIL), and squamous cell carcinoma. Early detection of cervical cytologic abnormalities, particularly HG SIL, which is clearly a cancer precursor, provides the opportunity...

You do not currently have access to this content.