X-linked recessive anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency is a developmental and immunologic disorder caused by mutations in nuclear factor-κB essential modulator (NEMO), which is essential for nuclear factor-κB activation. Early in life, affected boys present a typical appearance, with hypotrichosis or atrichosis, hypohidrosis or anhidrosis, and hypodontia or anodontia with conical incisors. They are also susceptible to various microorganisms, mostly pyogenic bacteria and mycobacteria. Here we report 2 unrelated boys, aged 6 and 11 years, who have novel mutations in NEMO and present conical incisors and hypodontia as their sole and long-unrecognized developmental anomaly. One child had isolated recurrent pneumococcal disease, whereas the other had multiple infections. Our observations indicate that conical incisors should prompt the search for NEMO mutations in boys with unusual infectious diseases.

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