BACKGROUND: Synchronized nasal intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (SNIPPV) use reduces reintubation rates compared with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). Limited information is available on the outcomes of infants managed with SNIPPV.

OBJECTIVES: To compare the outcomes of infants managed with SNIPPV (postextubation or for apnea) to infants not treated with SNIPPV at 2 sites.

METHODS: Clinical retrospective data was used to evaluate the use of SNIPPV in infants ≤1250 g birth weight (BW); and 3 BW subgroups (500–750, 751–1000, and 1001–1250 g, decided a priori). SNIPPV was not assigned randomly. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) was defined as treatment with supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age.

RESULTS: Overall, infants who were treated with SNIPPV had significantly lower mean BW (863 vs 964 g) and gestational age (26.4 vs 27.9 weeks), more frequently received surfactant (85% vs 68%), and had a higher incidence of BPD or death (39% vs 27%) (all P < .01) compared with infants treated with NCPAP. In the subgroup analysis, SNIPPV was associated with lower rates of BPD (43% vs 67%; P = .03) and BPD/death (51% vs 76%; P = .02) in the 500- to 750-g infants, with no significant differences in the other BW groups. Logistic regression analysis, adjusting for significant covariates, revealed infants with 500–700-g BW who received SNIPPV were significantly less likely to have the outcomes of BPD (OR: 0.29 [95% CI: 0.11–0.77]; P = .01), BPD/death (OR: 0.30 [95% CI: 0.11–0.79]; P = .01), neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) (OR: 0.29 [95% CI: 0.09–0.94]; P = .04), and NDI/death (OR: 0.18 [95% CI: 0.05–0.62]; P = .006).

CONCLUSION: SNIPPV use in infants at greatest risk of BPD or death (500–750 g) was associated with decreased BPD, BPD/death, NDI, and NDI/death when compared with infants managed with NCPAP.

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