The objective of this study was to determine both practice and child characteristics and practice strategies associated with receipt of influenza vaccine in young children during the 2004–2005 influenza season, the first season for the universal influenza vaccination recommendation for all children who are aged 6 to 23 months.


Clinical and demographic data from randomly selected children who were aged 6 to 23 months were obtained by chart review from a community-based cohort study in 3 US counties. The proportion of children who were vaccinated by April 5, 2005, in each practice was obtained. For assessment of practice characteristics and strategies, sampled practices received a self-administered practice survey. Practice and child characteristics that predicted complete influenza vaccination were determined by using multinomial logistic regression.


Forty-six (88%) of 52 sampled practices completed the survey and permitted chart reviews. Of 2384 children who were aged 6 to 23 months and were studied, 27% were completely vaccinated. The proportion of children who were completely vaccinated varied widely among practices (0%–71%). Most (87%) practices implemented ≥1 vaccination strategy. Complete influenza vaccination was associated with 3 practice characteristics: suburban location, lower patient volume, and vaccination strategies of evening/weekend vaccine clinics; with child characteristics of younger age, existing high-risk conditions, ≥6 well visits to the practice by 3 years of age, and any practice visit from October through January.


Modifiable factors that were associated with increased influenza vaccination coverage included October to January practice visits and evening/weekend vaccine clinics.

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