More extremely preterm (EP) infants (≤25 weeks' gestational age) are surviving. What becomes of these children in terms of lung function?

This was a national cohort study that involved all infants born at ≤25 completed weeks' gestation in the United Kingdom and Ireland between March and December 1995 (N = 182). At the age of 11 years, parents completed a questionnaire and the children performed spirometry. Schoolmates born at term matched for age, gender, and ethnic origin served as controls. Current asthma was defined as “use of asthma medication or wheeze in the past 12 months by children with a doctor diagnosis of asthma, or use of asthma medication and wheeze in the past 12 months even if no prior diagnosis of asthma.”

Twice as many EP-born children (25% vs 13%; P < .01) had current asthma. Baseline spirometry was reduced (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1...

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