Childhood gender nonconformity has been associated with poorer relationships with parents, but it is unknown if childhood gender nonconformity is associated with childhood abuse or with posttraumatic stress disorder.

We identify gender nonconformity before age 11 years as a risk indicator for physical, sexual, and psychological abuse in childhood and lifetime probable posttraumatic stress disorder in youth.

Studies in the Netherlands show that pubertal blockade at Tanner 2/3 prevents unwanted sex characteristics and improves psychological functioning. Endocrine Society guidelines (2009) recommend pubertal suppression for adolescents with gender identity disorder until approximately age 16.

This is the first study of a US cohort of children and adolescents with gender identity disorder. Patients were referred for medical treatment to a pediatric center that supports a multidisciplinary Gender Management Service.

Prior to the Affordable Care Act of 2010, 34 states enacted laws extending eligibility for parents’ health insurance to adult children. Few studies...

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