Numerous studies report disparate use of dental services among poor children. National estimates vary based on the data source, and little is known about how age, race, and health plan affect use of dental services among Medicaid-enrolled children.

Based on of Medicaid claims, dental services improved since 2002 but varied substantially by state, age, and type of insurance. Children entering school had the highest prevalence of care as did children in primary care case management and health maintenance organizations.

Overall antibiotic prescribing rates for children declined throughout the 1990s and early 2000s. These declines were concurrent with changes in practice related to acute otitis media, the most common reason for antibiotic treatment in young children.

The downward trend in antibiotic-dispensing rates to young children in 16 Massachusetts communities ended by 2004–2005 and remained stable thereafter. This trend was driven by a declining otitis media diagnosis rate. Antibiotic treatment of diagnosed...

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