Pathogen-associated molecular patterns decisively influence antiviral immune responses, whereas there is less known about how endogenous signals of tissue damage (known as alarmins) are involved in antiviral defenses.

Mice were infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a single-stranded RNA virus, and a genome-wide cDNA expression analysis of total spleen tissue was performed and compared with the uninfected mouse. From a large panel of interleukins and inflammatory cytokines, interferon-γ and interleukin (IL)-33 (along with its receptor ST2) were the most highly upregulated. Infection with LCMV, as well as a murine herpesvirus (MHV-68), was performed in wild-type mice, mice deficient in IL-33 (in IL-33−/−), and mice in which IL-33 effects were blocked with a soluble decoy receptor (Il1-rl1-Fc). Proliferative responses of cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for LCMV were measured.

Levels of IL-33 peaked at 3 to 5 days after infection, mirroring levels of LCMV mRNA. After infection with LCMV, proliferative...

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