Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is among the last viruses to cause major, predictable worldwide outbreaks of disease and for which no vaccine or broadly effective antiviral drug is available. Annually in the United States, RSV accounts for ∼125 000 hospitalizations, 2.1 million outpatient visits to a pediatrician’s office or an emergency department, and 250 deaths among children in the first years of life. In addition to the burden of acute disease caused by RSV, severe lower respiratory tract infection early in life is associated with recurrent wheezing during the first decade of life.2,3  The unresolved issue of the association between severe viral respiratory illness early in life and subsequent wheezing remains one of the more perplexing issues in pediatrics. Numerous studies have documented that infants hospitalized with viral lower airway disease (especially after rhinovirus or RSV infection) are more likely to experience recurrent wheezing in contrast...

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