Invasive pneumococcal disease causes enormous morbidity in children. The spectrum and severity of illness caused by pneumococcal serotypes not present in the current vaccine, and whether the clinical profile and severity of disease have changed, are largely unknown.

Initial data suggest that nonvaccine serotypes are more common in children with underlying conditions, who have greater morbidity from disease. In the post-PCV13 era, a larger proportion of patients are hospitalized, but mortality rates are unchanged.

Massachusetts implemented a major health reform in 2006 to reduce uninsurance, improve access to care, and increase financial protection for its citizens, but little is known about its effect on privately and publicly insured children with special health care needs.

Massachusetts health reform improved access to specialists for privately insured children with special health care needs but did not reduce uninsurance, increase access to primary care, or improve financial protection. National reform may produce similarly modest...

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