This synopsis book reports advances and key observations that will affect the care of children with allergic and immunologic diseases now and in the near future. Reviewers selected many articles that have clinical “pearls,” and they provide insights that are applicable for daily practice, as well as ones which challenge our previous notions and provide data that may lead to new approaches for diagnosis and treatment.

A number of intriguing studies reviewed here substantially support the “hygiene hypothesis,” the finding that early microbial exposure is protective and that antibiotics represent a risk factor of allergy. Interesting among these was a study suggesting that maternal cleaning of a pacifier by sucking on it was protective of allergy, presumably by sharing the maternal microbiome. However, several studies found lackluster effects of trying to reverse the modern impact of hygiene by using probiotics. A number of studies this past year substantially support the...

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