Children born very preterm (VP) or with very low birth weight (VLBW) are at risk for cognitive deficits and low IQ in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that IQ discrepancies between VP/VLBW and term-born individuals are still found in adulthood.

Development of cognitive function is more stable for VP/VLBW than term-born individuals from infancy into adulthood and can be predicted fairly well from age 20 months onward. However, when adults with cognitive impairment are excluded, group differences in stability disappear.

Late preterm infants, compared with full-term infants, have less proficiency in reading and math at school age, with increased need for individualized educational plans and special education services. They also have lower cognitive performance on standardized IQ exams.

Late preterm infants have worse outcomes at school entry, and development is variable during the preschool years, so socioeconomic status, language spoken in the home, maternal education, maternal race, and being a late...

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