Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder, affecting millions of children, adolescents, and adults in the United States.1,3 ADHD is associated with a wide range of comorbid conditions and adverse outcomes, including learning and psychiatric disorders, substance abuse, school failure, increased healthcare costs and utilization, and, by young adulthood, significantly increased risk for suicide.4,8 Furthermore, many children will continue to have ADHD in adulthood, accompanied by high rates of comorbid psychiatric conditions.4 

Fortunately, despite this worrisome array of adverse outcomes, there are highly effective medical and behavioral treatments that have been shown to be associated with improved outcomes in multiple domains, such as reduced risks for substance use disorders, reduced emergency department visits, and improved school and academic outcomes.6,9,10 It is therefore a major public health imperative that clinicians provide optimal diagnostic and treatment...

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