Meningococcal conjugate vaccines were licensed beginning in 2005 on the basis of serologic end points and recommended for use in adolescents. A single dose at age 11 to 12 years was expected to provide protection through late adolescence. We conducted a case-control evaluation of vaccine effectiveness (VE) and duration of protection of a meningococcal (groups A, C, W, and Y) polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-D).
Cases of culture- or polymerase chain reaction-confirmed serogroup A, C, W, and Y meningococcal disease among adolescents were identified through meningococcal disease surveillance sites in the United States from January 1, 2006, through August 31, 2013. Attempts were made to enroll 4 friend and school controls per case. VE was calculated using the generalized estimating equation, controlling for underlying medical conditions and smoking.
Serogroup C accounted for 88 (49%), serogroup Y 80 (44%), and serogroup W 13 (7%) of enrolled cases. Thirty-six (20%) cases and 87 (44%) controls received MenACWY-D. The overall VE estimate 0 to 8 years postvaccination was 69% (51% to 80%); VE was 79% (49% to 91%) at <1 year, 69% (44% to 83%) at 1 to <3 years, and 61% (25% to 79%) at 3 to <8 years. VE was 77% (57% to 88%) against serogroup C and 51% (1% to 76%) against serogroup Y.
MenACWY-D was effective in the first year after vaccination but effectiveness waned 3 to <8 years postvaccination. The estimates of VE from this evaluation informed the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices in its decision to add a booster dose of MenACWY.