To examine the effectiveness and safety of peanut oral immunotherapy (POIT) after 1 year of maintenance in preschool-aged children.

In the study, researchers included 161 patients aged 9 to 70 months who successfully completed 1 year of maintenance POIT and were eligible for follow-up oral food challenge (OFC). The inclusion criteria were having a history of objective reaction to peanut and a positive test result (either a skin-prick test [SPT] or peanut-specific immunoglobulin E [ps-IgE]) or at least 1 objective reaction with dosing during build-up, along with a predetermined ps-IgE level and SPT wheal size.

Preschoolers enrolled in the study were given gradually increasing peanut protein doses over 16–22 weeks at clinic visits, building up to a maintenance dose of 300 mg. The children then ingested 300 mg of peanut protein daily for a year. After ∼12 months, the participants were invited to participate in a follow-up peanut OFC. SPT...

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