Limited data are available on the contemporary epidemiology, clinical management, and health care utilization for pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) due to third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales (G3CR) in the United States. The objective is to describe the epidemiology, antimicrobial treatment and response, and health care utilization associated with G3CR UTI.
Multisite, matched cohort-control study including children with G3CR UTI versus non–G3CR UTI. UTI was defined as per American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines, and G3CR as resistance to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, or ceftazidime. We collected data from the acute phase of illness to 6 months thereafter.
Among 107 children with G3CR UTI and 206 non–G3CR UTI with documented assessment of response, the proportion with significant improvement on initial therapy was similar (52% vs 57%; odds ratio [OR], 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44–1.50). Patients with G3CR were more frequently hospitalized at presentation (38% vs 17%; OR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.77–5.19). In the follow-up period, more patients with G3CR had urine cultures (75% vs 53%; OR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.33–5.24), antimicrobial treatment of any indication (53% vs 29%; OR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.47–5.39), and subspecialty consultation (23% vs 6%; OR, 4.52; 95% CI, 2.10–10.09). In multivariate analysis, previous systemic antimicrobial therapy remained a significant risk factor for G3CR UTI (adjusted OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.06–3.44).
We did not observe a significant difference in response to therapy between G3CR and susceptible UTI, but subsequent health care utilization was significantly increased.