Urinary calculi in children are rare in industrialized countries; less than 1% of the urinary calculi in the United States occur in the pediatric age group.1-3 Those stones that occur tend to be the result of metabolic disorders such as hyperparathyroidism, renal tubular acidosis, hyperoxaluria, myeloproliferative disorders, or other diseases that result in hyperuricemia. Children subject to recurrent urinary tract infections are also at risk, this being particularly important in those patients with neurovesical dysfunction due to conditions such as myelomeningocele or sacral agenesis. Herein are presented six cases of young patients aged 16 years and younger who were treated for symptomatic calculus disease by percutaneous nephrostolithotomy.
Percutaneous Nephrostolithotomy: An Alternative Approach to the Management of Pediatric Calculus Disease
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JOHN C. HULBERT, PRATAP K. REDDY, RICARDO GONZALEZ, ANTHONY D. YOUNG, JOHN CARDELLA, KURT AMPLATZ, PAUL H. LANGE, WILFREDO CASTANEDA-ZUNIGA; Percutaneous Nephrostolithotomy: An Alternative Approach to the Management of Pediatric Calculus Disease. Pediatrics October 1985; 76 (4): 610–612. 10.1542/peds.76.4.610
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